Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a motivational theory in psychology. This theory generally include  5 basic human needs and the each part of the pyramid represents the needs. The pyramid occurs from five-tier models. According to Maslow people motivated to get needs and some needs come from another one. Our most basic need is for physical survival, and this will be the first thing that motivates our behavior. Once that level is fulfilled the next level up is what motivates us, and so on.

Deficiency needs vs. growth needs

This five-stage model can be divided into deficiency needs and growth needs. The first four levels are often referred to as deficiency needs (D-needs), and the top level is known as growth or being needs (B-needs).

Deficiency needs arise due to deprivation and are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the motivation to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food, the more hungry they will become. Maslow (1943) initially stated that individuals must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. However, he later clarified that satisfaction of a needs is not an“all-or-none” phenomenon, admitting that his earlier statements may have given “the false impression that a need must be satisfied 100 percent before the next need emerges” (1987, p. 69).  Growth needs arise from desires to grow as a person, not as a lack of something. Once these growth needs are reasonably satisfied, one can reach the highest level of self-actualization. However, growth needs to continue to be felt and may even become stronger once they have been engaged.

Each person has an ability to be self-actualized and moves toward to self actualization tier which is the last tier of hierarcy. Unfortunately, progress is often interrupted by the inability to meet lower-level needs. Life experiences such as divorce and job loss can cause fluctuations between levels of the individual's hierarchy. For this reason, not everybody will move in a one-way hierarchy, but they will be able to move between different needs.

The hierarchy of needs five-stage model:

1.      Physiological needs:  Biological needs for human survival, e.g. air, food, drink, shelter, clothing, warmth, sex, sleep.

2.      Safety needs:  Protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear.

3.      Love and belongingness needs: The third level of human needs is social and involves feelings of belongingness.

4.      Esteem needs: Maslow classified into two categories: (1) esteem for oneself (dignity, achievement, mastery, independence) and (2) the desire for reputation or respect from others (e.g., status, prestige).

5.      Self-actualization needs: Realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.Resources



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