Bipolar disorder, known as bipolar affective disorder, is similar to periodic high mood mania’s term period and low mood major depressive disorder. The extreme contrary emotional state changes in the emotional state are the reporter of mental illness. It is also a common disorder affecting 1 out of every 50 people in the world. Of course, there are differences among people. Bipolar disorder is equally observed in both men and women. However, it occurs in early adolescence or in adulthood. Although the cause of the bipolar disorder is not clearly known, it has been observed that there are differences in the researchers' mind that affect the mood state to remain normal. Alcohol and substance use can sometimes be triggers. Although genetic factors are not the first choice, environmental and genetic factors are effective for bipolar disorder.

    The indication of bipolar disorder is 'Mani' which means suddenly increased emotional state. These indications are different in every individual. The early phase of the manic episode is called 'Hipomani'. In this period, the feeling of being very good, increasing energy level, being sourced and needing less sleep is the foreground. The hypomanic period is a difficult period to notice because it seems like fun for the individual, but the family and close friends are more likely to notice it. As the severity of manic episodes increases, there is an increase in adverse behavior in individuals. For example, excessive vomiting, increased sexual desire and dangerous driving. The individual can also be extremely angry and skeptical at this time. Psychotic symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, are present in periods when the severity is too high. In the period of depression, mania is the opposite of the period, the individual is usually sad and unhappy. Because it lasts for a long time, it makes your daily life difficult. Symptoms are life-challenging factors such as change in appetite, restlessness, difficulty collecting attention, and difficulty in making decisions. In addition, suicide and death considerations are common in the depression part of bipolar disorder.

     Common bipolar symptoms include energy loss, loss of taste, concentration problems, decreased / increased appetite, death or suicidal thoughts. In the treatment phase, single-agent therapy for manic and depressive patients may not be sufficient, therefore, supporting and preventive medicines will be more effective. Acute and short-term treatment with conservative treatment is used. Mood stabilizers, antipsychotics and antidepressants are used. Antipsychotics, Benzodiazepines, Lithium and other mood stabilizers are used in Mani and Hypomania periods. In addition, Lithium treatment in a prophylactic treatment is successful.





    1) Baldessarini RJ, Vieta E, Calabrese JR, Tohen M, Bowden CL (2010) Bipolar depression: overview and commentary. Harv Rev Psychiatry; 18(3): 143-157.

    2) Carman JS, Post RM, Buswell R, Goodwin FK (1976) MELATONIN. Am J Psychiatry; 133: 1181–1186.


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